Fully automated, software-operated inauthentic social media account. See also: cyborg.

Campaign (disinformation campaign)

  • Content that is demonstrably false or misleading is called a payload.
  • The massive and artificial spread of that payload is called a campaign.
  • If that campaign is supported by a foreign actor, it is called interference.
  • If it is organised by a foreign actor, it is called an attack.
  • The organic spread of the payload by nationals of the target country (or countries) is called a success of the campaign.


Partly automated, software-assisted inauthentic social media account managed by humans. See also: bot.


Process of proving that an idea or a myth is factually wrong. Unfortunately, debuking is understandably inefficient when facing conspiracy theories.


A form of information manipulation that relies on the spread of deliberately false or misleading information with the aim of producing an effect. It is not to be mistaken for misinformation, which is unintentional.


Process of verifying the veracity of claims based on factual information.

Fake news

Not necessarily false (actually, it is rarely purely fabricated) but rather falsified, counterfeit, or forged information (source: CAPS report).

Inauthentic account

Social media account that is not what it pretends to be, or does not behave accordingly to what it claims to be.

Information manipulation

Intentional and massive dissemination of false or biased news for hostile political purposes, including the weakening or destabilization of democratic debate (source: CAPS report).


Exogenous information manipulation orchestrated within a State by foreign State actors.


Web user who posts provocative messages, content or comments in forums or speech areas on the Internet to cause disruption and/or to amuse her/himself.

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